Monday, November 25, 2019
Manufacture and storage of khoa Essay Example
Manufacture and storage of khoa Essay Example Manufacture and storage of khoa Essay Manufacture and storage of khoa Essay Abstraction Khoa is a traditional dairy merchandise which is produced in India by both organized and unorganised sector. It is the base for assorted traditional Sweets manufactured in India. Apart from the traditional method of fabricating khoa many methods were developed late for the industry and storage of it. In the present essay I had mentioned about assorted engineerings available for industry and storage of khoa. Introduction Harmonizing to the National Dairy Development Board, India the one-year production of milk during the twelvemonth 2007-2008 is 104.8 million metric tons. India has two types of sectors for the selling of milk and its merchandises, one is organized sector and another is unorganised sector. The unorganised sector histories for 88 % of entire milk production in India and it includes selling of natural milk and traditional merchandises such as locally manufactured ghee, fresh cheese, and Sweets. The organized sector histories for 10-12 % of entire milk production in India and it includes the dairy co-ops and organized private dairies which produces Western-style dairy processed merchandises based on pasteurisation. The portion of organized sector in the entire milk production handling is increasing by the old ages ( FAO, 2002 ) .In India out of all dairy merchandises consumed traditional merchandises account for over 90 per centum. In order to protect the excess milk from spoilage simple procedures were developed to bring forth merchandises like curds ( yoghurt-like fermented merchandise ) , Makkhan ( butter ) , Khoa ( desiccated milk merchandise ) , Chhana and Paneer ( soft bungalow cheese-like civilized merchandise ) and Ghee ( clarified butter ) ( FAO, 2001 ) . And about 7 % of milk produced in India is converted to khoa ( ICMR, 2000 ) . KHOA MANUFACTURING PROCESS In India khoa is traditionally manufactured by uninterrupted boiling of milk in a shallow Fe or unstained steel vas to take wet and the procedure continues till the entire solid degree is attained in the scope of 65 to 72 % ( Pal and Raju, 2006 ) . As per the Prevention of Food Adulteration ( PFA ) , India ( 1955 ) regulations, khoa sold by whatever assortment or name such as Pindi, Danedar, Dhap, Mawa, or Kava which is obtained from cow or American bison ( or caprine animal or sheep ) milk or milk solids or a combination at that place of by rapid dehydration and holding non less than 30 per cent milk fat on dry weight footing. The Bureau of Indian Standards has given the demands for three types of khoa, viz. Pindi, Danedar and Dhap in footings of entire solids, fat, ash, sourness, coliforms and barm and cast counts ( Indian Standard ( IS ) : 4883, 1980 ) . A minimal fat degree of 5.5 in American bison milk is required to accomplish the PFA criterion. Khoa has been categorized into t hree major groups i.e. Pindi ( for Burfi, Peda ) , Dhap ( Gulabjamun ) and Danedar ( Kalakand ) on the footing of composing, texture and terminal usage. KHOA MANUFACTURING PROCESS CHEMICAL ASPECTS Khoa contain 75-80 % wet, 25-37 % fat, 17 -20 % protein, 22-25 % milk sugar, and 3.6-3.8 % ash ( Aneja et al. 2002 ) .The milk is subjected to high heat temperature during the industry of khoa which initiates figure of physico-chemical alterations ensuing in features centripetal, textural and structural belongingss in khoa. The uninterrupted warming will cut down H2O activity, inactivates assorted milk enzymes and destruct infective and spoilage micro-organisms apart from development of desirable spirits and texture. The warming procedure promotes the denaturation and curdling of milk proteins and the procedure is more rapid due to foaming and incorporation of air by uninterrupted stirring ( Sindhu et al. 2000 ) . The break of fat globule membrane and subsequent release of free fat that history for 44.8-62.8 per centum of entire fat in khoa occurs due to vigorous agitation during heating procedure of milk ( Mann and Gupta, 2006 ) . Adhikari et Al. ( 1994 ) has studied the interaction between milk supermolecules during warming of American bison milk utilizing Transmission Electron Microscopy ( TEM ) and ascertained casein-casein, casein-whey protein and casein-lactose interaction with gradual warming of milk. The khoa made with buffalo milk and milk of high sum solid will hold more brown coloring material in the terminal merchandise and this is due to browning reactions ( Gothwal and Bhavdasan1992 ) . Patil et Al. ( 1992 ) has investigated khoa microstructure utilizing scanning negatron microscope ( SEM ) and revealed that khoa consists of larger protein granules made up of partly fused casein micelles and non-micellar proteins. They besides observed decrease in the size of protein granules and inter-granular infinite during working or agitation of khoa industry procedure and it besides resulted in big sum of fat globules membrane fractions. FACTORS AFFECTING KHOA QUALITY Type of milk: Buffalo milk is by and large used alternatively of cow milk for the industry of khoa due to its higher output, softer organic structure and smooth texture. The khoa manufactured from cow milk have dry surface, xanthous coloring material, gluey and flaxen texture ( Pal and Gupta, 1985 ) . Sum of free fat: An optimal sum of free fat is necessary for desirable organic structure and textural belongingss of khoa ( Boghra and Rajorhia,1982 ) . Entire solid degree: There is important positive correlativity between entire solid degree milk and instrumental hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness of khoa ( Gupta et al. , 1990 ) . Working of Khoa: The formation of big lactose crystals can be reduced through working of khoa when compared to un-worked khoa and working consequences in no sensed sandiness upon storage. Equipments USED IN KHOA MANUFACTURING PROCESS Khoa is by and large manufactured by halwais in jacketed boilers, which has several disadvantages like hapless and inconsistent quality and limited shelf life of about 5 yearss at 30AÃ °C ( International Conference on Traditional Dairy Foods, 2007 ) .Most efforts made for up-gradation of the engineering of khoa are directed towards mechanisation of the procedure and developing uninterrupted khoa doing workss ( Aneja et al. , 2002 ) . Agrawala et Al. ( 1987 ) has developed mechanised conelike procedure VAT for readying of khoa. It consists of a chromium steel steel conelike VAT with a cone angle of 60AÃ ° and steam-jacket partitioned into 4-segments for efficient usage of thermic energy and less heat loss. Due its batch type of operation, it is suited merely for doing limited measures of the merchandise. National Dairy Development Board ( NDDB ) which is situated at Anand ( Gujarat ) , India has developed an Inclined Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger ( ISSHE ) for uninterrupted industry of khoa ( Punjrath et al. , 1990 ) . Concentrated milk of 42 to 45 % entire solids is used as provender in this machine and its disposition permits the formation of a pool of boiling milk critical to formation of khoa. Thin Film Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger ( TSSHE ) system has developed by Dodeja et Al. ( 1992 ) at NDRI for the uninterrupted industry of khoa and it consists of two Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers ( SSHE ) which are arranged in a cascade manner. In this machine milk is concentrated in first SSHE to about 40-45 % Entire Solids and eventually to khoa in the 2nd SSHE. But provender for this unit is buffalo milk and therefore rendering it suited for organized little and big dairies and enterp risers which is non in the instance of Inclined Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger. The capacity of both TSSHE and SSHE is about 50 kilograms khoa per hr and many organized dairies have adopted these uninterrupted khoa doing machines. Three-stage uninterrupted khoa industry unit has been developed by Christie and Shah ( 1992 ) . It has three jacketed cylinders placed in a cascade agreement which helps in easy transportation of milk from one cylinder in to other and it works as heat money changer. The heat money changers are installed with a mechanism of supplying disposition and the incline allows the motion of the contents in longitudinal way. The unit has a variable block thrust which helps in velocity accommodation and it is extremely bulky necessitating excessively much shocking country. ( Pal and Cheryan, 1987 ) and ( Kumar and Pal, 1994 ) have implemented Reverse osmosis ( RO ) technique for the industry of khoa from cow milk and American bison milk severally. This procedure comprises pre-concentration of milk ( 2.5-fold for cow milk and 1.5-fold for buffalo m ilk ) utilizing RO procedure followed by dehydration in a steam-jacketed unfastened pan for the industry of khoa. The concluding merchandise obtained by this membrane procedure was found to be indistinguishable to the conventionally prepared merchandise. This procedure saves energy during the initial concentration of milk. In order to do this procedure uninterrupted jacketed pan should be replace with SSHE. Different workers incorporated whey solids in the signifier of whey protein dressed ore ( WPC ) in the milk and reported that increased add-on of WPC in the milk resulted in big granulation in khoa and increased output ( Dewani and Jayaprakasha, 2002 ) . FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT ISSUES DURING KHOA STORAGE Due to higher foods and high H2O activity ( .96 ) , Khoa is easy Susceptible to growing of bacteriums. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus Cereuss are the chief contaminating micro beings in khoa and they cause many food-borne diseases. To forestall and cut down microbiological jeopardy from khoa HACCP should be applied. The microbic quality of Khoa is ab initio good during production clip and it will bit by bit deteriorate during storage and selling. The chief Critical Control Point for the impairment was identified as air-tight packaging. This job can be solved through altering the packaging stuff to muslin fabric which allows free air flow, reduced the microbic proliferation ( ICMR, 2000 ) . METHODS TO INCREASE STORAGE LIFE OF KHOA The storage life of khoa is merely two to three yearss, under ambient conditions, and 15-20 yearss under refrigerated conditions ( Ramzan and Rahman, 1973 ) . Rancidity is one of the ground which deteriorates quality of khoa and it adversely a? ECTs storage life of khoa ( Bashir et al. , 2003 ) .Addition of K sorbate vitamin E? ectively improves the storage life of khoa at higher temperatures. Jha and Verma ( 1988 ) have observed increased storage stableness of khoa for 40 yearss by add-on of K sorbate. Other workers besides stated that the storage life of khoa can be enhanced by utilizing di? erent types of nutrient preservatives and antimicrobic agents ( Wadhawa et al. , 1993 ) . At elevated temperatures the storage stableness of newly prepared khoa can be adversely a? ected. By mensurating free fatty acids, peroxide value and iodine value we can find storage stableness of khoa. The free fatso acid, peroxide and I values for newly prepared khoa were 0.025 % , 0.38 meq/kg and 80, se verally. The addition in free fatty acid and peroxide value and lessening in iodine value are the indexs of development of rancidity in khoa during three months of storage at elevated temperature. By adding BHA and BHT we can retard the development of rancidity in khoa on storage. But, BHT will move comparitively better than BHA. Therefore, we can increase the storage stableness of khoa by adding man-made antioxidants like BHA and BHT at elevated temperatures ( Rehman and Salariya, 2005 ) . Decision Although so many engineerings are developed for the production and storage of khoa, there is a still a demand of probe of chemical and physical facets during fabrication of khoa in order to understand factors responsible for quality. And all the known engineerings of fabrication of khoa should be transferred to little holder husbandmans who are the major subscribers of milk production in India.So that they can increase their monetary values of merchandises by bring forthing merchandises which will run into the modern quality criterions. Mentions: Adhikari.A.K. , Mathur.O.N. and Patil.G.R. ( 1994 ) . Interrelationships among Instron textural parametric quantities, composing and microstructure of khoa and gulabjamun made from buffalo milk, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 31 ( 4 ) .pp.279-284. Agrawala.S. P. , Sawhney.I. K. and Bikram Kumar. ( 1987 ) . Mechanized conelike procedure VAT. Patent No. 165440. Aneja.R. P. , Mathur.B. N. , Chandan.R. C. , and Banerjee.A. K. ( 2002 ) . Technology of Indian milk merchandises, 1st Ed. , Dairy India Year Book, Delhi.pp.126-128. Bashir.N. Rehman. Z. U. , Syed. Q. A ; Kashmiri.M. A. ( 2003 ) . Consequence of K sorbate on the physicochemical features of milk dressed ore ( khoa ) during different storage conditions. Pakistan Journal of Scientific Research, 55.pp. 103-109. Boghra.V. R. and Rajorhia.G.S. ( 1982 ) . Use of pre-concentrated milk for khoa devising, Asiatic Journal of Dairy Research. 1.pp.6 -12. Christie. I. S. and Shah, .U. S. ( 1992 ) . Development of a three phase khoa doing machine. Indian Dairyman.44 ( 1 ) .pp. 1 4. Dewani. P. P. and Jayaprakasha. H. M. ( 2002 ) . Consequence of add-on of whey protein dressed ore on physico-chemical and centripetal features of khoa and khoa based Sweets, Journal of Food Science and Technology.39 ( 5 ) .pp.502 506. Dodeja.A. K. , Abichandani. H. , Sarma.S. C. and Pal.D. ( 1992 ) . Continuous khoa doing system design, operation and public presentation, Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 45 ( 12 ) .pp. 671 674. FAO. ( 2001 ) .Report on the FAO E-mail Conference on Small-scale Milk Collection and Processing in Developing Countries. Chapter 3, pp.15. FAO. ( 2003 ) .A Review of Milk Production in India with Particular Emphasis on Small-Scale Producers, pp.6. FAO. ( 2002 ) . Annex I: Critical issues for hapless people in the Indian dairy sector on the thresold of a new epoch. Gothwal.P.P. and Bhavadasan.M. K. ( 1992 ) . Studies on the Browning features in dairy merchandises, Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 45 ( 3 ) .pp. 146-151 Gupta. S.K. , Patil.G.R. , Patel. A.A. , Garg.F.C. and Rajorhia.G.S. ( 1990 ) . Instron texture profile parametric quantities of khoa as influenced by composing, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 27 ( 4 ) .pp. 209-213 hypertext transfer protocol: //nddb.org/statistics/milkproduction.html hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dairyforall.com/indian-khoa.php Indian Council of Medical Research ( ICMR ) . ( 2000 ) . Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point for betterment of quality of processed nutrients, Vol. 30, No. 5. International Conference on Traditional Dairy Foods. ( 2007 ) . National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal ( India ) , pp. 29. Jha.Y. K. A ; Verma.N. S. ( 1988 ) . Consequence of K sorbate on the shelf life of khoa, Asiatic Journal of Dairy Research, 7.pp. 195-198. Kumar. S. and Pal.D. ( 1994 ) . Production of khoa from buffalo milk concentrated by rearward osmosis procedure, Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 47 ( 3 ) .pp.211 214. Mann.B. and Gupta.A. ( 2006 ) . Chemistry of milk in relation to industry of traditional dairy merchandises, In collection of Developments in traditional dairy merchandises , Centre of Advanced Studies in Dairy engineering, NDRI, Karnal. pp.12-17. Pal.D. and Cheryan.M. ( 1987 ) . Application of rearward osmosis in the industry of khoa: Procedure optimisation and merchandise quality, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 24 ( 5 ) .pp. 233 238. Pal.D. and Gupta.S. K. ( 1985 ) . Centripetal rating of Indian milk merchandises, Indian Dairyman, 37 ( 10 ) .pp. 465-474. Pal.D and Raju.P.N. ( 2006 ) . Developments in the industry of heat desiccated traditional milk sweets, In collection of Developments in traditional dairy merchandises , Centre of Advanced Studies in Dairy engineering, NDRI, Karnal. pp.18-25. Patil.G.R. Patel.A.A. , Allan-Wojtas. P. and Rajorhia. G.S. ( 1992 ) . Microstructure and texture of khoa, Food Structure, 11:155. Punjrath.J.S. , Veeranjamlyala.B. Mathunni.M. I. , Samal.S.K. and Aneja.R. P. ( 1990 ) . Inclined scraped surface heat money changer for uninterrupted khoa devising. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 43 ( 2 ) .pp.225 230. Ramzan. M. , and Rahman.R. U. ( 1973 ) . Tocopherol? ECT of storage clip and temperature on the quality of cow milk khoa, Pakistan Journal of Science, 25.pp. 149-154 Sindhu. J.S. , Arora.S. and Nayak. S. K. ( 2000 ) . Physico-chemical facets of autochthonal dairy merchandises, Indian Dairyman, 52 ( 10 ) .pp. 51-64. Wadhawa. B. K. , Gandhi. D. N. , and Goyal.G. K. ( 1993 ) . Enhancement in the shelf life of khoa, Indian Food Packer, 47.pp.5-53. Zia-ur Rehman and A.M. Salariya. ( 2005 ) .E? ECT of man-made antioxidants on storage stableness of Khoa a semi-solid concentrated milk merchandise, Food Chemistry 96 ( 2006 ) .pp.122-125.